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Джерела з історії України 
Українська історіографія 
Українська археологія 
Українська етнографія 
Історія української філософської та суспільно-полі 
Історія України 
Історія української культури 
Таємниці української історії 
Спеціальні історичні дисципліни та історія України 
Історичні наукові і краєзнавчі конференції 



Literature of Ukraine
It was not until the end of the 19th century that modem Ukrainian literature emerged out of the colloquial Ukrainian language and the writers of that time greatly contributed to the reawakening of Ukrainian national consciousness.
Ivan Kotlyarevsky inaugurated modem Ukrainian literature with his "Eneyida", a brilliant parody on Virgil's "Aeneid". Kotlyarevsky turned ancient Greek characters into Ukrainian Cossacks. His works are full of humor and recognizable portraits. He influenced many other writers.


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Chornobyl Nuclear Accident
April, 26th, is a special day for the people living in Ukraine and regions situated not far from it. A horrible accident occured at the Chornobyl nuclear station on that day in 1986. There was a nuclear reactor explosion, which had far reaching consequences.
Contamination by various radioactive isotopes, such as caesium-137, iodine-131, strontium-90, plutonium-239, and plutonium-240, from the Chornobyl nuclear accident have affected the air, land, and water of Ukraine and vast areas beyond. Recorded but unreported radiation levels in Kyiv a few days after the accident exceeded the maximum allowable levels by a hundredfold.
Press reports claim that significant numbers of deaths by radiation sickness elevated levels of stillbirth and birth defects and highly elevated rates of childhood leukaemia have occurred in the affected areas.
Significant areas of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia will remain unsafe for human beings for thousands years. It is a tragedy that thousands of people have returned to live in these contaminated regions.
A number of foreign countries offered specialised medical equipment and drugs for biological elimination of isotopes of different chemical elements from human body.
The Ukrainian people are very grateful to all those who helped and continue to help them.


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The Place of Historic Interest in Ukraine
Ukraine has an ancient history. There are many places worth sightseeing on its territory.
Chernigiv is one of the oldest towns in our country. It was one of the most important centres of Kyiv Rus. In the 12th century it had close commercial links with West Europe. In Chernigiv there are architectural landmarks of the 11–12th centuries. One of them is the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral. In the Cathedral interior there remained originals of frescoes of the 11th century.
One more interesting place in Ukraine is Vinnitsa. The first records of the town date back to 1363 when it is mentioned as a fortress. Vinnytsia is also remarkable as the birth place of M. Kotsyubinsky, a well-known Ukrainian writer.
The old town of Kaniv is situated on the high right bank of the Dnieper. The first mention of the town was recorded in 1144. At that time it was a frontier. Nowadays, Kaniv is famous not only in Ukraine. This town is world- known for its Tarasova gora. Taras Shevchenko, the great Ukrainian poet, is buried here.
Another place in Ukraine which attracts a lot of visitors is Uman. This Ukrainian town is famous for its park-reserve "Sofiivka". This park was set up in the period of 1796-1801 by Count Pototsky for his young wife.
Travelling across Ukraine one can have an excellent opportunity to learn its history and culture.


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The Constitution of Ukraine
On June 28, 1996, the Verkhovna Rada adopted the Fundamental Law of Ukraine, its Constitution.
The Constitution establishes the country's political system, assures rights, freedoms and duties of citizens, and is the basis for its law.
According to the Constitution Ukraine is a sovereign and independent, democratic, legal state. Ukraine is a republic. The state language is Ukrainian. The state symbols of Ukraine are the State Flag, the State Emblem and the State Anthem of Ukraine. The State Flag is a blue and yellow banner. The trident is the State Emblem.
The Constitution assures human and civil rights, freedoms and duties. It states that every person has the right to the free expression of views and beliefs. Every person has freedom of thought and speech. The Constitution guarantees the rights to life, personal inviolability. The right of private property is inviolable.
According to the Constitution cultural heritage is protected by law. No person may damage the environment.
The duty of citizens is to respect the state's symbols, to defend the Motherland, its independence and territorial integrity.
The Constitution outlines the activities of the Verkhovna Rada. Its main function is making laws. The people's deputies are elected to the Verkhovna Rada for a term of four years.


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Ukraine

Ukraine is a sovereign state. It has its own territory, higher and local bodies of state power (the Supreme Soviet and local Soviets) and government, national emblem, state flag and anthem. The capital is Kyiv.

The population of Ukraine are Ukrainians (73.6%). Besides, Russians (21.1%), Jews (1.3%), Byelorussians (0.8%), Moldovians (0.6%), Poles and Bulgarians (0.5 % each) and other nations and nationalities live here. There are 24 administrative regions and the Crimean autonomous republic in Ukraine.

The geographical position of Ukraine is very favourable to the development of its relations with countries of Europe, as well as with the countries throughout the world. It borders on the Russian Federation, Byelorussia, Moldova, Poland, Czechia, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania.

95% of the Ukrainian area is flat and the rest of it is mountainous. The Ukrainian Carpathians and the Crimean Mountains make up those 5% of its area. Ukraine is washed by the Black Sea and the sea of Azov and it has important ports. The major rivers are the Dnieper, the Dniester, the Bug, the Donets and others.

Ukraine has many industrial raw materials, it has rich deposits of iron, metals, coal, oil, gas, different ores and other natural resources. The country has metallurgical and heavy industries.

Scientists of Ukraine make a great contribution in our science. The Academy of Science of Ukraine includes many outstanding scientists and research workers famous for their important discoveries and inventions. Great success has been achieved by Yev. Paton Research Institute of Electric Welding, the Research Institute of Cybernetics, Superhard Materials, and others.

Ukraine has an ancient history. It has its own original culture and arts. Ukraine has many professional theatres and Philharmonic societies. The State Symphony Orchestra of the Ukraine, the Hrihory Veryovka Ukrainian People's Choir, the Transcarpathian People's Choir, the "Dumka" State Honoured Choir, the Honoured Bandore Players Choir, the Dance Company of the Ukraine are known not only in the country but all over the world.



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Independence

Beginning in the mid-1950s, outbursts of political protest against the totalitarian system gained momentum in Ukraine. An increasing number of illegal samizdat (samvydav) literature was published, and several dissident organizations and groups appeared. A deep crisis enveloped all walks of life in the 1970-1980s. At the same time Gorbachev's perestroika and glasnost served to slacken the wave of purges. In 1988 the Ukrainian Helsinki Union was organized. In 1989 the Rukh National Movement for Perestroika in Ukraine was farmed (since 1990 known as the Narodny Rukh of Ukraine).

On June 16, 1990, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine passed the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine. On August 24, 1991, the Ukrainian Parliament solemnly proclaimed Ukraine's independence and the formation of the independent state of Ukraine.

On December 1, 1991, a referendum took place in Ukraine, involving 84.18 Percent of citizens, of which number 90,35 per cent seconded the Independence Act of August 24.



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World War II

On June 22, 1941, Germany suddenly invaded the Soviet Union, starting the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45. Ukraine was one of the main strategic targets of the Wehrmacht eager to seize the USSR's industrially developed south. Still the Red Army's staunch resistance frustrated Germany's plans. The Battles of Kyiv, Odesa and Sevastopol (these three cities were titled "Hero-cities" after the war) slowed the Nazi offensive. In Ukraine the Nazi occupation regime was marked by special cruelty. In the years of the war its population dropped by 14.5 million. There were more than 200 concentration camps. Hundreds of thousands were put to death at the Yanivka camp in Lviv and in the Babi Yar ravine near Kyiv. Some 250 villages of Ukraine were burned together with their residents.

Nazi atrocities caused growing resistance from the Ukrainian people. The first partisan units appeared already in the summer of 1941. The biggest formations were led by S. Kovpak, O. Fyodorav and O. Saburov.



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Struggling for Independence

Haidamaka uprising (Haidamachchyna) – eighteenth-century popular rebellions against the social, national, and religious oppression of the Polish regime in Right-Bank Ukraine.

As the abuse of power by Polish magnates and nobles and in Ukraine increased, disaffection among the common people grew; serfs, other peasants, impoverished Cossacks, artisans, burghers, and agricultural colonists fled from their oppressors into the steppes or forests. There they formed bands of haidamakas, which moved swiftly from one area to another to attack their enemy and disappeared again into the wilds. Zaporizhian Cossacks played leading roles as organizers of the rebel bands, which plundered and burned towns and nobles' estates, killing Roman Catholic and Uniate clerics, nobles and their agents. The Poles reacted by further repressing the peasantry. Haidamakas who were captured were tortured and cruelly executed. Yet the haidamakas' call for a free land, for the abolition of serfdom, and for the free exercise of the Orthodox faith found sympathy among the peasantry and many Orthodox monks, who often provided them with shelters, supplies, and hiding places.



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Bohdan Khmelnytsky

Khmelnytsky, Bohdan (Fedir) Zihovii, born ca 1595-1596, died 6 August, 1657 in Chyhyryn. Hetman of the Zaporizhian Host from 1648 to 1657, founder of the Hetman state (1648-1782). By birth he belonged to the Ukrainian nobility and bore the Massalski, and later the Abdank, coat of arms. His father, M. Khmelnytsky, served as an officer under the Polish hetman S. Zolkiewski and his mother, according to some sources, was of Cossack descent. Little is known about Khmelnytsky's education. Apparently, he received his elementary schooling in Ukrainian and his secondary and higher education in Polish at a Jesuit college, possibly in Jaroslaw, but more probably in Lviv. He completed his schooling before 1620 and acquired a broad knowledge of world history and fluency in Polish and Latin. Later he acquired a knowledge of Turkish, Tatar, and French. The Battle of Cecora (1620), in which he lost his father and was captured by the Turks, was his first military action. After spending two years in Istanbul, he was ransomed by his mother and returned to Ukraine.



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The Cossack Republic
The word Cossack means a free and independent man. Cossacks were first mentioned in writing in 1492. In the 16th century the Cossacks united in a single military organization. The first fortifications were built on Mala Khortytsia Island, in the lower reaches of Dnieper, beyond the rapids. Hence the name, Zaporizhia.
The word "sich" comes from Ukrainian "sikty", meaning "to chop up", cut because the Cossacks cut trees to make their fortifications of wood. Fighting the enemies of the Eastern Orthodox faith and for the independence of the native land was the predominant idea of the Sich host. The end of the 16th century witnessed joint peasant-Cossack revolts against the Polish social, economic, religious and cultural oppression. In 1648 a national liberation war broke out in Ukraine, led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky. That same year the Polish army lost several battles to the Cossack forces. On December 23, 1648, Kyiv joyously welcomed the victorious Cossacks.
Squeezed between the three powerful countries Muscovy, Poland and the Ottoman Empire with its vassal Crimeam Khanate, Ukraine had to seek allies. This led to the Treaty of Pereyaslav (1654), a military and political alliance with Russia. In 1667 Moscow and Warsaw divided Ukraine between the two of them, the Right Bank went to Poland and the Left Bank to Muscovy. For the Ukrainian people it was sheer political disaster.


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